2 edition of Factors affecting the germicidal efficiency of hypochlorite solutions found in the catalog.
Factors affecting the germicidal efficiency of hypochlorite solutions
A. S. Rudolph
by Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts in Ames, Ia
Written in English
|Statement||by A. S. Rudolph and Max Levine.|
|Series||Bulletin 150, Iowa Engineering Experiment Station|
|Contributions||Levine, Max, 1889- joint author.|
|LC Classifications||RA766.H95 R8|
|The Physical Object|
|Number of Pages||48|
|LC Control Number||41052868|
OBJECTIVES: To determine the stability of sodium hypochlorite (diluted household bleach) when stored for 30 days in various types of containers and to determine the efficacy of low concentrations of free available chlorine to inactivate test bacteria. DESIGN: Laboratory-based study. Solutions of standard household bleach were prepared using tap water or sterile distilled water at . hypochlorite solution depends on five major factors: Hypochlorite concentration. nickel, cobalt and copper form pH of the solution. Temperature of the solution. Concentration of certain impurities which catalyze decomposition. Exposure to light. Low concentration hypochlorite solutions decompose slower than high concentration hypochlorite.
Chemistry of AOPs. Uses in Drinking Water and Wastewater Treatment. Factors Affecting System Performance. Regulations. Equipment and Generation. References. Appendix. Index. (source: Nielsen Book Data) Summary Continuing the tradition of combining theory and practice, the 5th edition of The Handbook of Chlorination is a major revision of this. 08/16/16 DISINFECTION 12 3. FILTRATION It is the method of removal of bacteria from heat labile liquids such as sera and antibiotics solution. Factors affecting its efficiency are: Initial number of microorganisms - type of microorganism - composition and pore size of the filter 08/16/16 DISINFECTION 13 Contd.. Uses: a.
Destruction of Bacillus subtilis spores with solutions of sodium hydroxide. Factors affecting the germicidal efficiency of hypochlorite solutions. The Iowa State College Bulletin Germicidal properties of chlorine compounds. (). Heat resistance studies with spores of Bacillus anthracis and related aerobic bacilli in hair and bristles. Hypochlorous acid is the more germicidal of the two. Chlorination Chlorine gas rapidly hydrolyzes to hypochlorous acid according to: Cl 2 + H 2O ÎHOCl + H+ +Cl– Aqueous solutions of sodium or calcium hypochlorite hydrolyze too: Ca(OCl) 2 + 2H 2O ÎCa2+ + 2HOCl .
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Get this from a library. Factors affecting the germicidal efficiency of hypochlorite solutions. [A S Rudolph; Max Levine]. Recommended Citation. Rudolph, Altheus S., "Some factors affecting the germicidal efficiency of hypochlorite solutions " ().
Retrospective Theses and by: Some factors affecting the germicidal efficiency of hypochlorite solutions. By Altheus S. Rudolph. Topics: Hypochlorites, Disinfection and disinfectants, Agriculture, Food Microbiology Author: Altheus S.
Rudolph. Some factors affecting the germicidal efficiency of chloramines George Russell Weber Iowa State College Follow this and additional works at: Part of theCivil and Environmental Engineering Commons,Microbiology Commons, and the Public Health Commons.
The germicidal efficiency of two hypochlorite preparations was compared. One had an available chlorine concentration of 15 per cent. and an alkalinity due to NaOH of per cent. The other had an available chlorine concentration of per cent.
and an alkalinity due to Ca (OH)2 of per cent. Tests were made on Bact. typhosum and Staph. by: 6. Factors Affecting Germicidal Efficiency of Chlorine and Chloramine.
Weber GR, Levine M Am J Public Health Nations Health, 34(7), 01 Jul Phenol is germicidal in strong solution, inhibitory in weaker ones. Used as a “scrub” for pre-operative hand cleansing. Used in the form of a powder as an antiseptic baby powder, where it is dusted onto the navel as it heals.
Also used in mouthwashes and throat lozenges, where it has a painkilling effect as well as an antiseptic one. Physical and Chemical Factors Physical and chemical factors such as temperature, pH, relative humidity and water hardness play an important role in the disinfectant process.
Factors Affecting the Efficacy of Disinfection and Sterilization. but halving the concentration of a phenol solution requires a fold (i.e., 2 6) increase in its disinfecting timeoccurs by a chemical reaction between the germicide and the organic matter resulting in a complex that is less germicidal or nongermicidal, leaving.
Phenolic germicidal detergent solution (follow product label for use-dilution) Glutaraldehyde-based formulations (>2% glutaraldehyde, caution should be exercised with all glutaraldehyde formulations when further in-use dilution is anticipated); glutaraldehyde (%) and % phenol/phenate.
Aims To evaluate the availability, effect of storage, dilution and heating on some commercial sources of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Methodology All pharmacies in a Regional Health Authority were telephone surveyed to establish the proprietary and nonproprietary NaOCl products available, their cost and concentration.
Ninety‐six freshly produced bottles of a commercially available thin. 5 Effect of Cl 2 on zRecent study on effect of chlorine on E. coli zTested 6 strains of OH7 at 4 Cl 2 levels mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L X 0 1 and 2 mins contact time z5/6 isolates + E.
coli control strain were highly susceptible to chlorine z>7 log10 reduction of each of these strains by mg/L free chlorine within 1 min (CT value = ). The effects of pH, hypochlorite and chloride ion concentration, temperature, and ionic strength on the kinetics and mechanism of decomposition of concentrated hypochlorite ion and the formation of chlorate ion and oxygen in the pH 9−14 region has been investigated.
In the absence of catalytic levels of transition-metal ions, the rate of chlorate ion formation is times faster than the. Hypochlorite solutions (pH ),~ere prepared freshly at tile start of each experiment; available chlorine assays were made by an arsenite titration method (Coates, ).
Sporwida. actwily A 9 ml volume of hypocMorite so!ulion was equilibrated at 20°C before addiuon of 1 ml of standardized spore suspension. The bactericidal efficiency of sodium hypochlorite as an endodontic imgant Ming Shih, B.M.D., M.S., F. James Marshall, D.M.D., M.S.* and Samuel Kosen, Ph.D.,** Columbus, Ohio OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF DENTISTRY I ngle and Zeidow1 and Nicholls2 suggested that the reduction in bacterial population due to the cleansing of a contaminated root canal was to some extent.
Hypochlorite solutions that are pH adjusted are much more effective than alkaline solutions against bacterial endospores [4, 12, 19, 23].
Cleaning efficiency depends upon factors such as pH of. pH of the solution (to reduce the breakdown during storage, the hypochlorite solution should be maintained at pH 9–11) c) Temperature: a-c) The hypochlorite is more efficient if the concentration and temperature are raised and/or the pH is lowered () d) Contact time: c-d).
Factors That Affect the Germicidal Activities of Chemical Agents (1) The # and kinds of microbes that are present (2) The kinds of materials that are being treated (3) The time of exposure required (4) The strength and mode of action of the agent C.
Categories of Chemical Agents 2) The Halogen Antimicrobial Chemicals Halogen- fluorine, chlorine, and iodine, a group of non-metallic elements. It is generally believed that HOCI is the active species in the germicidal ac- tion, whereas the concentration of -OCI is a key factor determining the cleaning efficiency.
This implies that the optimal pH region of the germicidal activity of sodium hypochlorite dif. Some factors affecting the concentration of available chlorine in commercial sources of sodium hypochlorite S.
Frais, Y-L. Ng & K. Gulabivala Department of Conservative Dentistry, Eastman Dental Institute for Oral Health Care Sciences, University College London, London, England, UK Abstract Frais S, Ng Y-L, Gulabivala K.
Some factors affecting. Weber GR, Levine M. Factors Affecting Germicidal Efficiency of Chlorine and Chloramine. Am J Public Health Nations Health. Jul; 34 (7)– [PMC free article] [Google Scholar] Ho DD, Moudgil T, Alam M. Quantitation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in the blood of infected persons.
N Engl J Med. Dec 14; (24)–Organic matter may decrease the sporicidal efficiency of sodium hypochlorite (33). Concentration, humidity, temperature, and carrier material affect gaseous sterilization of spores.
Ethylene oxide penetrates into porous material (absorbed strongly by rubber and many plastics); thus vapors are not readily eliminated by brief aeration.Factors affecting the disinfected efficiency of UV lamp have been known as light intensity, irradiation time, environmental temperature and humidity, installed density, ventilation, air change.